【資訊】2019年5月31日「世界無菸日」聚焦肺部保健 拒菸戒菸就對了

World No Tobacco Day 2019
2019 年世界無菸日
Tobacco and lung health
Every year, on 31 May, the World Health Organization (WHO) and global partners celebrate World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The annual campaign is an opportunity to raise awareness on the harmful and deadly effects of tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, and to discourage the use of tobacco in any form.
世界衛生組織與全球合作夥伴於每年 5 月 31 日舉行世界無菸日活動,藉此機會提 升對於吸菸與二手菸致命危害的認知,及不要使用任何形式的菸品。
The focus of World No Tobacco Day 2019 is on "tobacco and lung health." The campaign will increase awareness on: ‧the negative impact that tobacco has on people’s lung health, from cancer to chronic respiratory disease, ‧the fundamental role lungs play for the health and well-being of all people.
2019 年世界無菸日的主題為「菸品與肺部健康」,旨在提高民眾對於下述議題的認 知: ‧菸品對肺部健康的負面影響,包括從癌症到慢性呼吸道疾病。 ‧肺對所有人的健康與福祉扮演著關鍵的角色。
The campaign also serves as a call to action, advocating for effective policies to reduce tobacco consumption and engaging stakeholders across multiple sectors in the fight for tobacco control.
世界無菸日亦呼籲付諸行動,強調以有效的政策減少菸品消費,並使菸害相關工 作者參與這場菸害防制戰役。
How tobacco endangers the lung health of people worldwide
World No Tobacco Day 2019 will focus on the multiple ways that exposure to tobacco affects the health of people’s lungs worldwide. These include:
2019 年世界無菸日的重點在於讓民眾瞭解菸品暴露可經由多種管道或形式影響肺 部健康,說明如下:
Lung cancer. Tobacco smoking is the primary cause for lung cancer, responsible for over two thirds of lung cancer deaths globally. Second-hand smoke exposure at home or in the work place also increases risk of lung cancer. Quitting smoking can reduce the risk of lung cancer: after 10 years of quitting smoking, risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a smoker.
肺癌 吸菸是造成肺癌的主要原因,菸害造成全球有超過三分之二的肺癌患者死亡。暴 露於家中或工作場所的二手菸也會增加罹患肺癌的風險。戒菸則可以減少肺癌風 險:戒菸 10 年後,罹患肺癌的風險可降低為吸菸者的一半。
Chronic respiratory disease. Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition where the build-up of pus-filled mucus in the lungs results in a painful cough and agonising breathing difficulties. The risk of developing COPD is particularly high among individuals who start smoking at a young age, as tobacco smoke significantly slows lung development. Tobacco also exacerbates asthma, which restricts activity and contributes to disability. Early smoking cessation is the most effective treatment for slowing the progression of COPD and improving asthma symptoms.
慢性呼吸道疾病 吸菸是造成慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)的主要原因,症狀是有濃稠的黏液積聚於肺 部,導致咳嗽會疼痛與呼吸困難等症狀。菸草燃燒產生的煙霧會減緩肺部發育, 若年輕時就開始吸菸,則罹患 COPD 的風險會相對較高。此外,吸菸也會使氣喘 惡化,進而導致失能或殘疾。因此及早戒菸是減緩 COPD 惡化及改善氣喘的最有 效方法。
Across the life-course. Infants exposed in-utero to tobacco smoke toxins, through maternal smoking or maternal exposure to second-hand smoke, frequently experience reduced lung growth and function. Young children exposed to second-hand smoke are at risk of the onset and exacerbation of asthma, pneumonia and bronchitis, and frequent lower respiratory infections. Globally, an estimated 165,000 children die before the age of 5 of lower respiratory infections caused by second-hand smoke. Those who live on into adulthood continue to suffer the health consequences of second-hand smoke exposure, as frequent lower respiratory infections in early childhood significantly increase risk of developing COPD in adulthood.
生命歷程 孕婦吸菸或暴露於二手菸環境,會使胎兒暴露於菸霧毒素,導致其肺部的成長及 功能發育減緩。暴露於二手菸的幼兒有罹患或惡化氣喘、肺炎及支氣管炎等病症 的風險,亦會增加下呼吸道感染的機會。全球大約有 16.5 萬名 5 歲以下兒童因二 手菸危害而死於下呼吸道感染。然而這些自幼暴露於二手菸環境的人,在成年之 後仍有二手菸所致的健康危害,包括容易罹患肺炎、COPD 等。
Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) damages the lungs and reduces lung function, which is further exacerbated by tobacco smoking. The chemical components of tobacco smoke can trigger latent infections of TB, which around a quarter of all people are infected with. Active TB, compounded by the damaging lung health effects of tobacco smoking, substantially increases risk of disability and death from respiratory failure.
肺結核 肺結核會損害肺部並降低肺功能,而吸菸會使其雪上加霜。全球有四分之一的人 因菸品產生的化學物質使潛伏的肺結核發作。吸菸會加劇傷害肺結核病患的肺部, 導致失能及呼吸衰竭致死。
Air pollution. Tobacco smoke is a very dangerous form of indoor air pollution: it contains over 7,000 chemicals, 69 of which are known to cause cancer. Though smoke may be invisible and odourless, it can linger in the air for up to five hours, putting those exposed at risk of lung cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and reduced lung function.
空氣污染 菸煙是一種非常危險的室內空氣污染:其包含了超過 7,000 種化學物質,當中更有 69 種致癌物。菸煙可殘留於空氣中長達 5 小時,暴露於此環境會有肺癌、慢性呼 吸道疾病和降低肺功能的風險。 Goals of the World No Tobacco Day 2019 campaign 2019 世界無菸日活動的目標
The most effective measure to improve lung health is to reduce tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure. But knowledge among large sections of the general public, and particularly among smokers, on the implications for the health of people’s lungs from tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke exposure is low in some countries. Despite strong evidence of the harms of tobacco on lung health, the potential of tobacco control for improving lung health remains underestimated.
改善肺部健康最有效的措施是減少菸品的使用以及減少二手菸暴露,但大部份的 民眾(尤其是吸菸者)對於吸菸及二手菸危害肺部健康的認知皆不足。儘管已有 強力證據表明菸品對肺部健康造成危害,但仍低估了菸害防制能改善肺部健康的 潛力。
The World No Tobacco Day 2019 campaign will raise awareness on the: ​

  • risks posed by tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke exposure;
  • awareness on the particular dangers of tobacco smoking to lung health;
  • magnitude of death and illness globally from lung diseases caused by tobacco, including chronic respiratory diseases and lung cancer;
  • emerging evidence on the link between tobacco smoking and tuberculosis deaths;
  • implications of second-hand exposure for lung health of people across age groups; 
  • importance of lung health to achieving overall health and well-being;
  • feasible actions and measures that key audiences, including the public and governments, can take to reduce the risks to lung health posed by tobacco.
2019 年世界無菸日將提高人們對下述的認知:
  • 吸菸與二手菸暴露所帶來的風險。
  • 瞭解吸菸對肺部健康的危害。
  • 全球因菸品引起的肺部疾病包括慢性呼吸道疾病與肺癌。
  • 有新實證證明吸菸與結核病的死亡具有因果關係。
  • 二手菸暴露對各種年齡層民眾的肺部健康皆有影響。
  • 肺部健康對整體人類健康和幸福福祉具重要性。
  • 民眾與政府應採取措施與行動,以減少菸品對肺部健康的危害。
The cross-cutting theme of tobacco and lung health has implications for other global processes, such as international efforts to control noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), TB and air pollution for promoting health. It serves as an opportunity to engage stakeholders across sectors and empower countries to strengthen the implementation of the proven MPOWER tobacco control measures contained in the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).
「菸品與肺部健康」屬跨領域議題,對全球其他議題具有推波助瀾的影響,例如 全世界為了促進健康而控制慢性非傳染性疾病、肺結核、空氣污染等所做出的努 力。它為各行各業提供了合作的機會,加強各國實施世界衛生組織菸草控制框架 公約(WHO FCTC)中已被公認有效的 MPOWER 菸害防制措施。
Call to action 呼籲採取行動 Lung health is not achieved merely through the absence of disease, and tobacco smoke has major implications for the lung health of smokers and non-smokers globally.
要實現肺部健康,僅做到沒有疾病是不夠的,尚須瞭解吸菸產生的煙霧對全球吸 菸者與非吸菸者的肺部健康都具有重大影響。
In order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of a one-third reduction in NCD premature mortality by 2030, tobacco control must be a priority for governments and communities worldwide. Currently, the world is not on track to meeting this target.
為了實現聯合國「永續發展目標」-2030 年將慢性非傳染性疾病導致的早夭減少 三分之一,各國政府必須將菸害防制列為優先事項。迄今,對此目標進度仍落後。
Countries should respond to the tobacco epidemic through full implementation of the WHO FCTC and by adopting the MPOWER measures at the highest level of achievement, which involves developing, implementing, and enforcing the most effective tobacco control policies aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco.
各國應通過全面實施《世界衛生組織菸草控制框架公約》並採取最高標的 MPOWER 措施來對抗菸品盛行,其中包括制定、實施與執行最有效的菸害防制政 策,以減少菸品需求。
Parents and other members of the community should also take measures to promote their own health, and that of their children, by protecting them from the harms caused by tobacco.
民眾也應該採取有效行動,保護自己與孩童避免遭受菸品的危害,促進自身與孩 童健康。